E-commerce Development in Ghana/West Africa & Cyber Security Challenges

U.S. Safe Web Act

This Act provides the FTC with a number of tools to improve enforcement regarding fraudulent spam, spyware, misleading advertising, privacy and security breaches, and other consumer protection matters, particularly those with an international dimension. Among other things, the Act allows increased cooperation with foreign law enforcement authorities through confidential information sharing, provision of investigative assistance, and enhanced staff exchanges. In certain limited circumstances it enables the FTC to obtain information in domestic or foreign consumer protection matters from third parties without tipping off investigative targets.


Cyber Laws in Asia


Maldives does not have any officially recognized regulation pertaining to Cyber Law.

Maldives has signed a Memorandum of Collaboration against Malicious Activities in Cyberspace with Japan Ministry of Information and Communication.


National Security Policy 2012



Bangladesh Telecommunication Act, 2001.

Bangladesh Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Act, 2006 amended in the year of 2009 & 2013


Bangladesh Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Act, 2006 are the main substantive law of cyber crimes.


Bhutan does not have any specific cybercrime legislation but it has adopted the Bhutan Information and Communication Media Act 2006http://www.moic.gov.bt/daden/uploads/2014/04/actenglish2006.pdf provides functions, responsibilities and powers of the Ministry of Information and Communications; the establishment of the Bhutan Infocomm and Media Authority; provision of ICT facilities and ICT services; provisions relating to radio communications; provisions relating to media issues; provisions relating to cyber issues such as e-governance, e-commerce, consumer protection and online privacy; and offences, penalties and legal proceedings.


Regulations on Safeguarding Computer Information Systems, Feb. 1996


Article 1- These regulations have been formulated to safeguard computer information systems, to promote the application and development of computers, and to ensure smooth progress in socialist modernization.


Indonesia does not have any specific Cyber Law legislation but it has adopted Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 11 of 2008 Concerning Electronic Information and Transactions, seehttp://www.bu.edu/bucflp/files/2012/01/Law-No.-11-Concerning-Electronic-Information-and-Transactions.pdf

Regulation Number 82 of 2012 Concerning Electronic System and Transaction Operation http://rulebook-jica.ekon.go.id/english/4902_ PP_82_2012_e.html.

Law on Consumers’ Protection 1999 http://www.cipatent.com/consumersprotectionlaw. pdf

Pornography Law 2008.


Malaysia has adopted the Computer Crimes Act 1997 of Malaysia (http://www.agc.gov.my/Akta/Vol.%2012/Act%20563.pdf). Part II of the Computer Crimes Act 1997 of Malaysia deals with offences. It includes penal substantive rules, regulations and also procedural rules.

The Computer Crimes Act 1997 of Malaysia & the Penal Code (Revised 1997) of Malaysia, are the main substantive law.

Electronic Commerce Act 2006 http://www.agc.gov.my/Akta/Vol.%2014/Act%20 658.pdf.

Electronic Government Activities Act 2007 http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/ documents/apcity/unpan031538.pdf.

Digital Signature Act 1997 http://www.skmm.gov.my/Legal/Acts/DIGITAL-SIGNATURE-ACT-1997-REPRINT-2002.aspx.

Personal Data Protection Act 2010 http://www.kpkk.gov.my/pdf/Personal%20Data%20 Protection%20Act%202010.pdf.

Communications and Multimedia Act 1998 http://www.skmm.gov.my/Legal/Acts/ Communications-and-Multimedia-Act-1998- Reprint-200.aspx.

Consumer Protection Act 1999 http://www.agc.gov.my/Akta/Vol.%2012/Act%20 599%20-%20Consumer%20Protection%20Act%20 1999.pdf.


Myanmar does not have any specific Cyber Law legislation but it has adopted the Electronic Transactions Law ( The State Peace and Development Council Law No. 5/2004 ) The 12th Waxing of Kason 1366 M.E. (30th April, 2004) (http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un-dpadm/unpan041197.pdf).

Electronic Transaction Law 2004 http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/ documents/un-dpadm/unpan041197.pdf.

Computer Science Development Law 1996 http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_ id=182055.


Nepal does not have any specific Cyber Law legislation but it has adopted The Electronic Transaction Act, 2063 & Electronic Transaction Rules 2064 (http://moste.gov.np/document_search&filter_name=electronic%20#.VMtIctKUeBk) which is the Nepal’s first cyber law. The Chapter 9 of the Electronic Transaction Act, 2063 deals with various cybercrimes. It includes penal substantive rules, regulations and also procedural rules.


Singapore does not have any officially recognized national legislation pertaining to cyber law. But it has adopted the Electronic Transactions Act (ETA) (Cap 88) (seehttp://www.ida.gov.sg/Policies-and-Regulations/Acts-and-Regulations/Electronic-Transactions-Act-and-Regulations) was first enacted in July 1998 to provide a legal foundation for electronic signatures, and to give predictability and certainty to contracts formed electronically.

The Computer Misuse and Cybersecurity Act (http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/aol/search/display/view.w3p;page=0;query=DocId:8a3534de-991c-4e0e-88c5-4ffa712e72af%20%20Status:inforce%20Depth:0;rec=0) &

Spam Control Act (http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/aol/search/display/view.w3p;ident=25e653e9-ddc4-4b48-85f5-0a3817c1ea55;page=0;query=Id%3A%22b81d86b6-20e4-4467-93ed-9c3901c55e73%22%20Status%3Ainforce;rec=0#legis) are the main substantive law.

In addition, Personal Data Protection Act 2012 of the Singaporehttp://www.mci.gov.sg/~/media/data/mci/docs/infocomm/dataprotectionbill/pdpa.pdf?la=en

Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act 2003 (http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/).
MDA Internet Code of Practice

(http://www.mda.gov.sg/Documents/PDF/licences/ mobj.981.Internet_Code_of_Practice.pdf).


Thailand does not have any specific Cyber Law legislation but it has adopted Computer Crime Act B.E 2550 (2007) of Thailand (http://www.thailawforum.com/database1/thailand-computer-crime-law.html). The Computer Crime Act B.E 2550 (2007) of Thailand deals with various cyber crimes. It includes substantive rules, regulations and also procedural rules. (http://www.thailawforum.com/articles/laws-and-policies-of-thailand-in-supporting-electronic-commerce-2.html)

Electronic Transactions Act 2001

Consumer Protection Act 1979
Unfair Contract Terms Act 1997
(http://www.samuiforsale.com/law-texts/unfaircontract-terms-act.html (unofficial translation).


Electronic Transactions Act 2008http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/images/LOB/PDF/Electronic%20Transactions%20(chp.196).pdf.

Computer Misuse Act 2007http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/images/LOB/PDF/Computer%20Misuse.pdf.

Sale of Goods Act 1999 http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/images/LOB/PDF/ Chp.170.pdf.

Unfair Contract Terms Act 1999 http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/images/LOB/PDF/ Chp.171.pdf.

Authority for Info-communications Technology Brunei Darussalam Order 2001 http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/images/LOB/Order/ ABC/A/Authority%20for%20info-communica­tions%20Technology%20Industry%20of%20BD%20 Order,%202001.pdf.


Law on the Press 1995 (Khmer only) http://cambodia.ohchr.org/klc_pages/KLC_files/ section_006/section06_002_1995.pdf.

Regulations on Registration ofDomainNames for Internet under the Top Level “kh” http://www.gocambodia.com/KHDomainReg/ Regulation_on_Reg.asp.


Electronic Transactions Law 2012.

Ministry of Information and Culture, Special Provisions (416/IC) for Control of the Content and the Information and Data Obtained via the Internet System.

Telecommunication Law 2001 http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_ id=180335.


Electronic Commerce Act 2000 http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2000/ ra_8792_2000.html.

Data Privacy Act (2012) http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2012/ ra_10173_2012.html.

Cybercrime Prevention Act 2012 http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2012/ ra_10175_2012.html.

Consumer Act 1991 http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra1992/ ra_7394_1992.html.

Alternative Dispute Resolution Act 2004

http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2004/ ra_9285_2004.html.


Law on E-transactions 2005 http://chinhphu.vn/portal/page/portal/English/legaldocuments/Policies?categoryId=886&articl eId=10001393.

Decree No. 26 providing detailed regulations on the implementation of the Law on E-transactions on digital signature and digital signature certification services http://www.moj.gov.vn/vbpq/en/Lists/Vn%20bn%20 php%20lut/View_Detail.aspx?ItemID=4172.

Management and Use of Internet Services Decree 2001 http://www.moj.gov.vn/vbpq/en/Lists/Vn%20bn%20 php%20lut/View_Detail.aspx?ItemID=9441.

Law on Protection of Consumers’ Rights 2010.

Cyber law In India

In the Indian subcontinent , cyberlaw jurisprudence has evolved substantially as compared to other jurisdictions.  The Indian Information Technology Act, 2000 which initially was passed for promoting e-commerce in the year 2000, has become the defacto legislation in India for regulating all activities in the digital medium.  It also deals with activities done on computer networks and communication devices.

India has adopted the Information Technology Act, 2000 (No. 21 of 2000) being the Cyber Law in India aimed at promoting e-commerce. Further the Information Technology Act, 2000 (No. 21 of 2000) has been amended by the the Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008 (No. 10 of 2009). It includes penal substantive rules, regulations and also procedural rules.